European Arctic Lowlands
To the north of the Russian Plain are the flat and swampy European Arctic Lowlands. Located in northwestern Russia
, these lowlands are snow-and ice-covered in the winter, and retain snowmelt water on the surface in the summer. Only a few feet of soil thaw out during the summer. The underlying, permanently frozen ground (called permafrost) will not absorb meltwater. On the large Kola Peninsula
adjoining Finland, repeated glacial action has carved picturesque fjords. The landscape contains thousands of small lakes, swamps, and streams. To the east and near the Ural Mountains
lies the Pechora Plain. Here, coal is mined in permanently frozen ground.